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Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies to plant cell wall polymers generated or maintained in our laboratory (Paul Knox, LM-series or formerly the PlantProbes sets of antibodies) are detailed below.

PDF: Overview list and short guide to our antibody probes 

Antibody specificities and links to publications


Large selections of our rat MAbs are now available from various sources.

NEW: We are pleased to announce that a selection of our MAbs are now available from Biosupplies, based in Australia, alongside their other products for botanical microscopists and polysaccharide enzymologists.  Please note that these are purified MAbs and that Biosupplies ship products world-wide. 

The most extensive set is available from Kerafast based in Boston, USA.  Kerafast provide onward distribution of sets of the MAbs to Agrisera in the EU who in turn supply  Newmarket Scientific for Agrisera-branded items in the UK. 

Antibodies are also available from Ximbio based in the UK.

The BAM- antibodies to brown alga fucans and alginates are available from SeaProbes in Roscoff.

Selections of JIM- and MAC-antibodies (to AGPs/extensins) are also available from Carbosource at the CCRC/University of Georgia.

A Megazyme selection of our antibodies is currently out of stock. 

The PlantProbes activity, that maintained the availability of monoclonal antibodies from our laboratory, was in operation from 1998 until it ceased distribution in June 2021. We are thankful for all the interest shown during this period.

Our cell wall antibodies are highly sensitive, highly specific and versatile molecular tools that can be used for microscopy analyses and quantitative assessments of cell wall polymers in all plant materials ranging from fruits and vegetable to fibres and all forms of plant biomass. We are happy to discuss any potential uses or applications of our probes.

Enquiries about our antibodies or comments on the current distribution outlets are welcomed and can be addressed to Paul Knox 

Notes on availability on non-Leeds products.

The anti-HG monoclonal antibody 2F4 was not made by our laboratory (although distributed by us for several years) but by the laboratory of Professor Pierre van Cutsem at the University of Namur. We can no longer provide aliquots of this antibody.

Nzytech in Lisbon supply an array of CBMs.


LM- Leeds Monoclonal, BAM- Brown Algal Monoclonal, JIM- John Innes Monoclonal, MAC- Monoclonal Antibody Centre (Babraham).

All antibodies listed here are rat monoclonal antibodies.
Reagents we recommend for their detection include:
Anti-rat IgG (whole molecule)-peroxidase produced in rabbit (Sigma A9542)
Anti-rat IgG (whole molecule)-FITC produced in rabbit (Sigma F1763)
Anti-rat IgG (whole molecule)-Gold produced in goat (Sigma G7035)

Link to Protocols for use with antibodies

Immunolabelling techniques - immunofluorescence & immunogold protocols

Immunochemical techniques - ELISAs and nitrocellulose-based protocols

Downloads - Antibody lists and Pectin cartoons


List of monoclonal antibodies

Cartoon depictions of pectic structures and epitopes
PectAb19 PDF